The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time nations have agreed on country-by-country emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S. economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included. In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. Implementation of the agreement by all Member States will be evaluated every five years, with the first evaluation in 2023. The result will be used as an input for new national contributions from Member States.  The inventory will not be national contributions/achievements, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what remains to be done. The Paris Agreement has an “upward” structure unlike most international environmental treaties, which are “top down”, characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives that states must implement.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.
 Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding. Only the processes governing reporting and revision of these objectives are imposed by international law. This structure is particularly noteworthy for the United States – in the absence of legal mitigation or funding objectives, the agreement is seen as an “executive agreement, not a treaty.” Since the 1992 UNFCCC treaty was approved by the Senate, this new agreement does not require further legislation from Congress for it to enter into force.  The Paris Agreement, also known as the Paris Climate Agreement, is an agreement between leaders of more than 180 countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit global temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 F) above pre-industrial levels by 2100. Ideally, the agreement aims to keep increases below 1.5 degrees Celsius. The agreement is also called the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). the Paris conference was insufficient and found that “estimates of aggregate greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030, resulting from planned national contributions, are not covered by the least expensive 2oC scenarios, but rather lead to a projected level of 55 gigatonnes in 2030.” and acknowledges that “much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be required to keep the increase in the global average temperature below 2 degrees Celsius, by reducing emissions to 40 gigatonnes or 1.5 degrees Celsius.”  [Clarification needed] The agreement commits all countries to reduce their emissions and cooperate to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time.